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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Abstract We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task Paritale taskwhich was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming i.
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After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect Gratton that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation.
Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. Introduction Imagine an 82 year-old man enjoying his retirement.
He attends online bridge competitions, reads interesting books, and solves crossword puzzles. His memory is as good as it was when he was 30, and he knows it. What would you think of such a person? More importantly, do you think that thinking about him has an influence on you? And, if there is such an influence, could it be helpful to you and improve your performance?
The present study aims to examine the influence of thinking about another person i. Cognitive Control and Aging Cognitive control, a component of executive functions, has been found to be affected by aging [ 1 — click at this page ]. Cognitive control is related to conflict monitoring—the ability to suppress irrelevant information [ 4 ] and engage selective attention.
Commonly, we orchestrate among conflicting sources of information or demands. For example, we may have to decide which object, dimension of an object or event needs to be attended to, and which should be ignored, inhibited, or deferred for later processing.
These situations require cognitive control, particularly inhibition. Here and Zacks [ 2 ] have suggested that age-related cognitive impairments result from the weakening of a general inhibitory system.
This notion has been supported by other studies as well [ 5 — 6 ]. Recently, Maylor, Birak, and Schlaghecken [ 7 ] found evidence that age- related deficits in inhibitory control generalize to conflicts arising at different levels of perceptual and motor processing. Simon Task One of the simplest tasks employed in studies of control and inhibition is the Simon task [ 8 ]. In a visual Simon task, participants are presented with a colored stimulus that appears on the left or the right of fixation, and are required to press a left or right key to report its color [ 9 — 11 ].
This arrangement creates two trial types: Participants respond faster to congruent than incongruent stimuli, a reaction time RT difference called the Simon effect. Adding a neutral stimulus third trial type, positioned at the central vertical meridian of the screen allows for examining components of the Simon effect.
Since a neutral stimulus should not present a conflict [ 12 ], we expect that performance in response to it should be better than for conflict trials, and worse than for facilitated trials. This set-up allows for distinguishing between components of facilitation neutral vs.
A neutral condition was introduced as a mean of manipulating control [ 13 ]. The authors suggested that proportionally more neutral trials would induce a lenient attitude in participants, and reduce control. In line with this suggestion, they found that increasing the number of neutral trials increased interference magnitude, suggesting a reduction of control. The most common explanation for the Simon effect is related to inhibitory control processes, as a means of solving the spatial conflict created [ 14 — 15 ].
Accordingly, one would expect changes in the Simon effect with aging. Indeed, previous results suggest that aging negatively impacts Make 32 bit game run on 64 bit os parietale task performance. Van der Lubbe and Verleger [ 3 ] found a larger Simon effect in older individuals, which could not be accounted for by generalized psycho-motor slowing due to aging. Bialystok, Craik, Klein, and Viswanathan [ 16 ] found that monolingual elderly adults showed an increased Simon effect compared to bilingual adults and suggested that aging effects on an inhibitory process can be modified by lifelong habits and practice with inhibition of interference from competing languages.
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Effects of Social Priming on Automatic Cognitive Processes There is evidence that priming a social concept triggers automatic behavior that is consonant with bitcoin casino 007 legend primed concept [ 18 ]. These changes lasted up to 15 minutes. The replication of these studies is mixed, showing failure [ 21 — 22 ] paristale success, described by Stroebe, and Strack [ 23 ] as successful conceptual replications of the study of Bargh et al [ 19 ] [ 24 — 28 ], and the study of Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [ 20 ] [ 29 — 34 ].
Levy [ 35 ] primed elderly individuals with age stereotypes e. She found that participants primed with negative age stereotypes performed worse than those primed with positive age stereotypes in memory tasks. Recently, Goldfarb, Aisenberg, and Henik click 36 ] conducted a Stroop task, priming participants with a social priming concept of dyslexia. In their study, participants were asked to perform a Stroop task they were presented with colored words and requested to respond to the printed colors while ignoring the meaning of the written wordsfollowed by a manipulation of a dyslectic person, paroetale painter, or a writer, and then they performed another session of the Stroop task.
It was found that the known Stroop effect RT difference between incongruent conflicting word and color trials and congruent matching word and color trialscreated because reading is an automatic process, was eliminated for participants primed with make 32 bit game run on 64 bit os parietale, in the first block after manipulation. This study was fully replicated recently [ 37 ]. This strongly suggests that parietae priming can affect automatic processing, particularly inhibition. The Present Study In line with the notion that social priming has an effect on automatic cognitive processes, the present study examined whether social priming could affect the cognitive process of inhibition in healthy elderly adults.
We used more info Simon task under conditions of social priming. As a social priming manipulation we used the concept of an elderly adult in a negative, neutral, or positive cognitive state. Our hypotheses are specific to the positive manipulation influence but we employed paietale and negative manipulations as well as controls.
If a social concept influences inhibitory control, we would expect a decrease of conflict interference after a positive manipulation, compared to neutral and negative manipulations, resulting in a smaller congruency Simon effect. In order to better understand the impact of social priming on inhibitory control we shall, by using a neutral condition, address the effects in terms of facilitation and interference. Sequential dependencies are another measure of cognitive control. Larger congruency effects are found in trials make 32 bit game run on 64 bit os parietale congruent than incongruent trials, suggesting that cognitive control is engaged not only at the time of stimulus presentation, but also affects preparatory processes that follow it [ 40 — 41 ].
Congruency effects following neutral trials were found to resemble those after congruent trials in mmake Simon task [ 42 — 43 ], though Lamers and Roelofs [ 44 ] showed them to resemble the after-incongruent effects no the Stroop and flanker tasks, challenging the view of Botvinick et al.
In the above-mentioned studies, young adults showed a significant congruency effect after congruent trials that decreased to a non-significant effect after incongruent trials. This effect is also called the adaptation effect or Gratton effectas it reflects improved performance from one conflict trial to the following conflict trial.
This was taken as an indication of a relatively less efficient inhibitory process.
They were randomly assigned to each of three social priming manipulations negative, neutral or positive and were asked to write, within a five-minute period, their thoughts regarding the everyday life of the person described. His memory is impaired and his thinking is not as fast as it used to be. She found that participants primed with negative age stereotypes performed worse than those primed with positive age stereotypes in memory tasks. They sat approximately 60 cm from the computer screen. Three levels of congruency in the Simon task: Levy [ 35 ] primed elderly individuals with age stereotypes e. This was taken as an indication of a relatively less efficient inhibitory process.
Experiment 1 In the context of the present study, if social priming affects cognitive control, we would expect a smaller Simon effect and interference following the implementation of the positive manipulation compared to the negative manipulation. Additionally, we would expect a normal pattern of sequential dependencies after receiving the positive manipulation, as elderly adults will show no Simon effect after incongruent trials, but will show it after congruent trials. At the beginning of the experiment, participants performed a two-session Simon task.
Three social priming manipulations negative, neutral, or positive were used, asking participants to write, within a five-minute period, their thoughts regarding the following: His memory is impaired and his thinking is not as fast as it used to be. Joseph is frustrated about this, and about the fact that he can no longer solve crossword puzzles as he always loved. He lives across the street from the HMO, and before an examination he wakes up early and packs an apple and a bottle of water in his bag. Describe his daily routine.
What does he do well, and what does he do poorly? The Negative manipulation scored 1. It is important to distinguish effects of cognitive social priming from effects of motivation and mood. Social priming of motivation was found to have a positive effect on read more control see [ 45 ]; word puzzles consisting of motivational words improved performance in the Wisconsin Cards Sorting Test—WSCT.
Additionally, effects of positive and negative mood were found to influence executive function performance. However, the results parietxle mood studies were inconsistent [ 46 — 48 ]. To insure that our priming manipulation did not affect motivation or mood, we conducted a manipulation check in which elderly adults filled mood and motivation questionnaires before and after responding to the five-minute neutral or positive manipulation see S1 File.
No motivation or mood-induced differences were found.
All participants have given a written informed consent prior to their participation. The choice to have 16 elderly adults in each group follows the amount of participants in the study of Goldfarb et al.
- As a social priming manipulation we used the concept of an elderly adult in a negative, neutral, or positive cognitive state.
- It was found that the known Stroop effect RT difference between incongruent conflicting word and color trials and congruent matching word and color trials , created because reading is an automatic process, was eliminated for participants primed with dyslexia, in the first block after manipulation.
- In the above-mentioned studies, young adults showed a significant congruency effect after congruent trials that decreased to a non-significant effect after incongruent trials.
All had normal or corrected-to-normal vision, without color blindness. The elderly adults groups did not differ in their level of education and socio-economic status the participants with different levels were recruited separately and randomly assigned to all three groups.
The replication of these studies is mixed, showing failure [ 21 — 22 ] and success, described ruun Stroebe, and Strack [ 23 ] as successful conceptual replications of the study of Bargh et al [ 19 ] [ 24 — 28 ], and the study of Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [ 20 ] [ 29 — 34 ]. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. Cognitive control is related to conflict monitoring—the ability to suppress irrelevant information [ 4 ] and engage selective attention. In a visual Simon task, participants are presented with a colored stimulus that appears on the left or the right of fixation, and are required to press a left or right key to report its color [ 9 — 11 ].
Consequently, there were 2 different incongruent stimuli when the patch appeared on the side opposite of the required key-press2 different congruent stimuli when the patch appeared on the side corresponding to the required key-press and 2 different neutral stimuli when the patch appeared on vertical position, irrelevant to a horizontal response. A block of 91 trials was created pseudo-randomly, containing at least 30 trials of each condition congruent, incongruent and neutralto allow generating the sequence of trials so that each of the nine possible sequential pairings between trial types was present at least 10 times previous trial congruent and current trial congruent; previous trial congruent and current trial neutral and so on.
A practice block consisting of 16 trials preceded experimental blocks. Three levels of congruency in the Simon task: Stimuli were presented on a Compaq S monitor. A keyboard was placed on a table between the participant and the monitor. Colored stickers were placed on the keyboard keys according to the colors they represented, in a balanced layout.
At the beginning of the experiment, participants performed the Ishihara Color Blindness Test to examine color vision and elderly adults were screened with the Mini-Mental Status Exam [ 49 ] to rule out cognitive deficits. We decided that participants who score less than 27 were will be excluded.
During the break, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire supposedly related to another study. At the beginning of the Simon experiment, the participants were instructed to press the key on the keyboard that matched the stimulus color on screen. The participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible without making mistakes. Participants were run individually.
They sat approximately 60 cm from the computer screen. Before the beginning of the experimental blocks, the participants practiced on 16 Simon trials. Each trial started with a blank screen for ms, followed by a ms presentation of a fixation black cross at the center of the screen. After the fixation point disappeared, the stimulus appeared visit web page to the right, left, above or below the central position of the screen for ms.
The target stimulus was followed by a ms blank screen during which the participant had to respond see Fig.